Public relations | Marketing homework help

1) Which of the following is/are essential to any comprehensive definition of public relations?

A) Public relations is a planned activity.

B) Public relations is a management function.

C) Public relations is socially responsible.

D) B and C

E) All of the above.


2) Award-winning professionals prefer this Hunt and Grunig model of public relations.

A) the process facilitation model

B) the two-way asymmetrical model

C) the two-way symmetrical model

D) the press agentry/publicity model

E) the public information model


3) A profession is distinguished from a trade by ________.

A) the establishment of ethical standards

B) ongoing research in support of the profession

C) a form of licensing or government control

D) A and B

E) All of the above.


4) One of the advantages of a public relations career is that ________.

A) it is a profession that is understood and respected by most people

B) it is a stress-free profession

C) its skills are transferable across a broad range of career opportunities

D) All of the above.

E) None of the above.


5) Public relations practitioners ________.

A) work for nonprofit organizations

B) serve as independent consultants

C) are employed by public relations agencies

D) All of the above.

E) None of the above.


6) ________ is one of the four steps in the public relations process.

A) Publicity

B) Promotion

C) Planning

D) Programming

E) Propaganda

7) Among the flaws in the traditional four-step model of public relations is/are that it ________.

A) doesn’t take into account the importance of values

B) implies a process where one step automatically follows another

C) oversimplifies a very dynamic process

D) All of the above.

E) None of the above.


8) The first question an organization should ask itself when developing a values statement is:

A) How can we win the respect of others?

B) Why should be care about our customers?

C) Why are we in business?

D) How much money do we want to make?

E) What is in it for us?


9) The use of public relations strategies and tactics to foster and enhance the shared interests

and values of an organization and the publics important to its success is known as ________.

A) human relations

B) advertising

C) integrated marketing communications

D) marketing

E) relationship management


10) In which broad category of public relations jobs are practitioners least likely to have the term

public relations included in their job titles?

A) governments

B) nonprofit organizations and trade associations

C) corporations

D) independent public relations consultancies

E) public relations agencies


11) In which broad category of public relations jobs do practitioners bear the greatest

responsibility of their personal success or failure?

A) independent public relations consultancies

B) governments

C) public relations agencies

D) corporations

E) nonprofit organizations and trade associations

12) According to a University of Georgia survey of 2005 graduates, the average starting salary for

public relations practitioners is ________.

A) $25,000

B) $22,000

C) $16,500

D) $30,000

E) $20,000


13) According to a 2000 PRSA/IABC survey, which of these qualities were more important to

practitioners than salary?

A) recognition by colleagues

B) access to technology

C) professional development

D) creative opportunity

E) all of the above


14) Many public relations practitioners record how they spend their working hours ________.

A) as a means of billing clients

B) to allow their supervisors to see how employees spend their time

C) for internal billing purposes

D) all of the above

E) none of the above


15) Practitioners who act for the good of a relationship, rather than just one side of a relationship

are fulfilling a(n) ________.

A) manager’s role

B) boundary spanning role

C) consultant’s role

D) press agent role

E) independent endorsement


16) Which of these individuals is generally credited with being “the father of public relations”?

A) George Creel

B) George V.S. Michaelis

C) Ivy Ledbetter Lee

D) Ron Zeigler

E) Edward L. Bernays

17) Edward Bernays gets more credit as being the “father of public relations” than Ivy Ledbetter

Lee because ________.

A) Bernays coined the phrase “public relations”

B) Bernays introduced the concepts of accuracy and ethics to the profession

C) Lee worked for the Nazi sympathizers; Bernays did not

D) A and B

E) A and C


18) The Scopes Monkey Trial ________.

A) was a historic clash between science and religion

B) was a publicity stunt

C) focused on Darwin’s theory of evolution

D) All of the above.

E) None of the above.


19) The so-called “Four Minute Men” ________.

A) are former track and field stars who now serve as PR spokespersons

B) were affiliated with the Creel Committee

C) delivered patriotic messages during the First World War

D) A and B

E) B and C


20) Edward L. Bernays’ critics claimed that he ________.

A) was sexist

B) was dishonest

C) was a Nazi sympathizer

D) was too self-promotional

E) didn’t understand the plight of poor people


21) When you communicate with one public in an attempt to reach another public, the public with

whom you are communicating is known as ________.

A) a latent public

B) a primary public

C) an aware public

D) a secondary public

E) an intervening public

22) ________ is/are the most powerful force in the U.S. economy.

A) Business expenditures

B) Government spending

C) Consumer spending

D) Industrial expenditures

E) Foreign investment


23) The group that spends the most money is consumers ages ________.

A) 18-25

B) 26-34

C) 35-44

D) 45-54

E) 55-64

24) Objections to a movie promotion in German Subway restaurants centered on ________.

A) the stereotyping of minority groups

B) its anti-war message

C) explicit sexual content

D) a lack of sensitivity concerning the 9/11 terror attacks in New York

E) the lack of diversity in the movie’s cast


25) Among U.S. voters, the age group with the highest percentage of voters is ________.

A) this is a trick question; voting rates don’t differ by age

B) 65 and older

C) 45-64

D) 30-44

E) 18-29

26) This element of the communication model represents the content of communication.

A) noise

B) receiver

C) channel

D) message

E) source


27) This element of the communication model represents the medium used to transmit the


A) message

B) channel

C) receiver

D) source

E) noise


28) This theory of mass communication says people are influenced by opinion leaders who may

change from issue to issue.

A) Agenda Setting Hypothesis

B) Magic Bullet Theory

C) Diffusion Theory

D) N-Step Theory

E) Uses and Gratifications Theory


29) According to Abraham Maslow, ________ is/are the most basic order of needs people have.

A) acceptance

B) safety needs

C) self-actualization

D) self-esteem

E) physiological needs


30) The purpose of Monroe’s Motivated Sequence is to ________.

A) anticipate future trends

B) study the evolution of public opinion

C) measure public opinion

D) build persuasive messages

E) counteract Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

31) According to Aristotle, an appeal to one’s reason is known as ________.

A) pathos

B) ethos

C) eggos

D) legos

E) logos


32) ________ is what happens when a public debate leads to a consensus.

A) A social action

B) An issue

C) A social value

D) An already present mass sentiment

E) Public opinion


33) When public relations practitioners attempt to manipulate public opinion, they run the risk of

losing their ________.

A) credibility

B) license

C) accreditation

D) respect

E) innocence


34) Communicating an idea in such a way that an audience is infl uenced, either intentionally or

unintentionally, by the way it is expressed is known as ________.

A) spinning

B) manipulation

C) framing

D) shading

E) coloring


35) The Ten Commandments is an example of ________.

A) an organizational ethics code

B) a really, really long movie

C) a professional ethics code

D) a societal ethics code

E) a personal ethics codes


36) When you evaluate an ethical dilemma by determining defi nitions, values, principles and

loyalties, you are applying the ethical process known as ________.

A) Utilitarianism

B) the veil of ignorance

C) the Potter Box

D) the golden mean

E) values-driven public relations

37) In an ethical dilemma, when you try to understand the situation from others’ viewpoints, you

are applying the ethical principle known as ________.

A) the Potter Box

B) the veil of ignorance

C) the golden mean

D) values-driven public relations

E) Utilitarianism


38) The public relations practitioner’s role as a relationship manager ________.

A) resolves the misleading question of whether one should serve as an advocate or as an

objective observer

B) can mean that sometimes it is necessary to be an advocate

C) can involve the delivery of unpopular truths

D) All of the above.

E) None of the above.


39) The believe that one system of ethics is superior to all others and leaves no room for fl exibility

is known as ________.

A) cultural relativism

B) cross-cultural ethics

C) the golden mean

D) ethical imperialism

E) dilemmas


40) Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative requires one to make ethical decisions as if ________.

A) we have reach the “Golden Mean of Enlightenment”

B) it’s the end of the world as we know it

C) there is a veil of ignorance descending upon the world

D) they would be applied as rules you want everyone else to follow

E) it were a life or death situation


41) ROI stands for ________.

A) return on investment

B) relevance of information

C) relationship ordinal indexing

D) real or imagined

E) rate of interest

42) ”What is your favorite color?” is an example of ________.

A) a closed-ended question

B) an open-ended question

C) a rating-scale question

D) a trick question

E) a dichotomous question


43) Research that focuses upon determining the issues and the client’s stake in those issues is


A) stakeholder research

B) quantitative research

C) client research

D) evaluation research

E) problem-opportunity research


44) When everyone in a sampling frame is included in the sample, the sampling technique is

known as ________.

A) simple random sampling

B) cluster sampling

C) a census

D) systematic sampling

E) cross-tabulation sampling


45) The Pentagon came under sharp criticism in 2003 when it created a PAM, an online trading

market designed to predict ________.

A) the fl ow illegal immigration into the U.S.

B) future terrorist activities

C) future economic conditions

D) the effects of global warming

E) military intentions of other nations


46) A public relations plan that contains strategies for dealing with a situation that may arise is

called ________.

A) an ad hoc plan

B) a logistical plan

C) a flexible plan

D) a contingency plan

47) Crisis communications plans are a form of ________.

A) standing plan

B) logistical plan

C) contingency plan

D) flexible plan

E) ad hoc plan


48) Generalized statements of the outcomes you hope your plan will achieve are ________.

A) building consensus

B) tactics

C) objectives

D) brainstorming

E) goals


49) An accurate and unbiased description of the reasons why it has become necessary to take

public relations actions is known as ________.

A) a planning grid

B) team building

C) a situation analysis

D) goal setting

E) evaluative research


50) A good plan is ________.

A) one that includes free balloons for the kids

B) linked to dynamic and creative tactics

C) one that is inexpensive

D) makes targeted audiences happy

E) tied to a specific goal

51) Public relations tactics can involve the use of ________.

A) controlled media

B) uncontrolled media

C) special events

D) All of the above

E) None of the above


52) Special events are designed for ________.

A) participants

B) observers

C) survey respondents

D) A and B

E) B and C


53) VNR stands for ________.

A) values-negotiated risk

B) video news release

C) values-neutral research

D) video network registration

E) variable noncompliance restriction


54) The acronym PAC stands for________.

A) political access committee

B) public access committee

C) political assistance committee

D) political action committee

E) positive attitude committee


55) What’s the best advice for a news conference?

A) Have refreshments for reporters.

B) Don’t do it if alternatives such as a news release would work as well.

C) Have hot coffee on hand.

D) Schedule it when all media can attend.

E) Invite only media you know are friendly.

Unit 3 Examination

56) Media kits can include ________.

A) backgrounders

B) fact sheets

C) news releases

D) B and C

E) All of the above


57) The difference between a media advisory and a news release is ________.

A) a media advisory is generally longer than a news release

B) media advisories are generally used for fast-breaking news stories

C) news releases are factual and media advisories are not

D) news releases can be openly promotional; media advisories usually can’t

E) There is no difference. These are two names for the same document.


58) When executing a public relations plan, ________ is/are among the key factors to be


A) deadlines

B) quality control

C) communication within the team

D) All of the above

E) None of the above


59) The person responsible for the success of a public relations plan should ________.

A) always make saving the client’s/company’s money the highest priority

B) communicate frequently with clients or supervisors

C) evaluate the process only after it is completed and all the facts are available

D) All of the above

E) None of the above


60) PR Week magazine lists this/these skill(s) as essential for entry-level public relations


A) writing

B) advertising copywriting

C) public speaking

D) web design

E) A and C

Unit 3 Examination

61) Writing for the web is different from writing for a printed page because ________.

A) the Internet provides unlimited space for detail

B) computer users are more sophisticated than traditional print users

C) computer screens are harder to read than the printed page

D) A and B

E) A and C


62) When writing a speech, it is important to ________.

A) use precise nouns and verbs

B) use concrete words and images

C) place attribution after a quotation

D) A and B

E) all of the above


63) Presentation research starts with ________.

A) planning

B) a company party

C) organization

D) knowing your targeted public

E) visual aids


64) Presentation planning starts with ________.

A) research

B) deciding what personality you want to project

C) hiring a consultant

D) being yourself

E) focus groups


65) One of the best ways to get over presentation jitters is to ________.

A) tell a funny joke to get everyone in a good mood

B) drink several cups of coffee to calm your nerves before speaking

C) ignore them

D) eat a good meal

E) practice your presentation

Unit 3 Examination

66) ________ refers to a new generation of Internet services that encourage online collaboration

and sharing.

A) Global village

B) Web 2.0

C) Viral marketing

D) Push technology

E) E-commerce


67) Viral marketing proved to be an effective tactic ________.

A) that led to the election of Bill Clinton as U.S. president in 1992

B) with the introduction of Microsoft’s Vista operating system in 2005

C) following the SARS outbreak in Canada in 2003

D) with the introduction of the personal computer in 1977

E) that helped the Allies counter Nazi propaganda in World War II


68) The fi rst thing one should do before establishing an Internet web site is ________.

A) create a memorable URL

B) determine who the audience is and what you want to say

C) estimate costs

D) locate a server

E) learn HTML


69) A popular collaborative software that allows multiple people to contribute to online content is

known as ________.

A) wifi

B) bluetooth

C) cybersharing


E) wiki


70) In the People’s Republic of China, the punishment for a “gross violation” of its Internet

policies is ________.

A) death

B) a prison sentence

C) loss of Internet access

D) deportation

E) a substantial fi ne

Unit 3 Examination

71) During the Sago mine disaster in 2006, families of the trapped miners were erroneously led to

believe that the men had been successfully rescued because ________.

A) the mining company did not have crisis communication plan

B) state offi cials “jumped the gun” in a effort to get credit for the rescue

C) the mining company’s crisis communications plan was not followed

D) the families were impatient

E) company offi cials lied to them


72) The second stage of a crisis is known as ________.

A) when things return to normal

B) the critical moment

C) the point of no return

D) the cleanup phase

E) the warning stage


73) Which of the following statements is/are true?

A) NASA learned to communicate better during crises after the Challenger accident.

B) NASA won public praise for its handling of the Columbia accident.

C) In both shuttle disasters, NASA suffered from what investigators called “go fever.”

D) All of the above.

E) None of the above.


74) The crisis management team meets in the ________.

A) executive suite

B) media information center

C) central command post

D) place where the crisis is occurring

E) emergency operations center


75) During the 2006 Sago mine disaster, ________.

A) the mining did not have a crisis communications plan

B) the mining company president acknowledged that he made a mistake

C) the mining company initially received praise for its crisis communications

D) A and C

E) B and C

76) At the start of the 21st century, the use of mass marketing is ________.

A) holding steady

B) considered the new wave of the future

C) declining

D) increasing at a rapid pace

E) None of the above.


77) An indication that consumer-focused marketing is infl uencing public relations is ________.

A) the growing number of mergers of advertising and public relations agencies

B) the decline in the growth of public relations

C) the increasing sophistication of marketing public relations

D) A and B

E) A and C


78) Which of the following is not one of Robert Lauterborn’s four C’s of IMC?

A) convenience to buy

B) consumer wants and needs

C) consumer’s cost

D) consumer commitment

E) communication


79) An IMC audit ________.

A) evaluates an organization’s customer databases

B) analyzes the communications network used in marketing

C) identifi es and prioritizes key stakeholder groups

D) All of the above.

E) None of the above.


80) An information-bearing experience that a customer or prospect has with a product, service, or

the market that relates to that product or service is known as a ________.

A) sale

B) message

C) double jeopardy

D) contact

E) pitch

Unit 4 Examination

81) Revlon’s use of Grammy-award winner Sheryl Crow as a spokesperson for a new line of

products was an example of ________.

A) targeted advertising

B) convergence of media

C) database marketing

D) glamour marketing

E) marketing public relations


82) Database marketing in the European Union ________.

A) is in an unsafe harbor

B) is less restricted than in the United States

C) is illegal

D) is called “relationship marketing”

E) is more restricted than in the United States


83) Umbro was surprised when it discovered that its new running show was named after ________.

A) a mythical sexual predator

B) the poison gas used in Nazi concentration camps

C) the devil

D) a variety of aardvark

E) a body part


84) The Campaign for Real Beauty ________.

A) used advertising as a tactic

B) used viral video as a tactic

C) was based on a global survey of 10,000 women

D) A and B

E) All of the above.


85) If the world were a village of 100 people, ________.

A) 50 would own a computer

B) 11 would be over the age of 79

C) 9 would speak English

D) 2 would live in substandard housing

E) 3 would have no electricity

Unit 4 Examination

86) According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, ________ measures how well a society tolerates


A) long-term orientation

B) individualism versus collectivism

C) masculinity versus femininity

D) power distance

E) uncertainty avoidance


87) Some have expressed concern that U.S. infl uence is being exerted globally because of U.S.

dominance of ________.

A) the Olympics

B) television programming

C) the movies

D) popular music

E) the Internet


88) Which of the follow is/are true?

A) All Swiss are punctual.

B) All Japanese are polite.

C) All baby boomers like the Beatles.

D) All of the above.

E) None of the above.


89) The fi nal step in the cross-cultural communications process is ________.

A) evaluation

B) continuing education

C) advocacy

D) sensitivity

E) testing


90) characteristics based on where a person or group lives is ________.

A) geoautonomy

B) geometrics

C) geocharactization

D) geometry

E) geodemographics

Unit 4 Examination

91) Expression associated with the normal conduct of a democracy is known as ________ speech.

A) absolute

B) free

C) democratic

D) political

E) republican


92) The U.S. Supreme Court has consistently ruled that commercial speech ________.

A) has no First Amendment protection

B) has limited First Amendment protection

C) is more restricted than political speech

D) A and C

E) B and C

93) Public relations practitioners should ________.

A) study law books

B) hire a really, really good lawyer

C) know the laws that govern their organization

D) intern at a law fi rm

E) take the state bar exam

94) The use of someone else’s likeness for a commercial purpose without consent is ________.

A) slander

B) intrusion

C) fraud

D) false light

E) appropriation


95) A litigation public relations practitioner usually ________.

A) has legal immunity

B) works for the attorney

C) has a law degree

D) works for the client

E) works for the court

Unit 4 Examination

96) ________ is how the United Nations describes as “the growing interdependence of the world’s

people through shrinking space, shrinking time, and disappearing borders?”

A) Darwinism

B) Globalization

C) Socialism

D) McLuhanism

E) Populism


97) Which of the following was not identifi ed in your book as a social force at work infl uencing the

future of public relations?

A) the growth in world population

B) the downsizing of the United States

C) the changing face of the United States

D) the global spread of democracy

E) Feminization in the workplace


98) The demand that women be included in decision making is known as ________.

A) empowerment

B) role enhancement

C) salary equity

D) feminization

E) girl power


99) According to the PRSA credibility study, ________.

A) public relations practitioners got high ratings for the tactics they used

B) public relations practitioners were rated near the bottom of all professions

C) public relations practitioners rated higher than activists, athletes and politicians

D) A and B

E) B and C


100) ________ skills are among the most desired skills for students planning a career in public relations.

A) Foreign language

B) Research analysis

C) Writing

D) All of the above.

E) None of the above.

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