Question: Demographic historians speak of a “population explosion” beginning in the seventeenth century, which they attribute to all of the following factors except
A A rise in the birthrate
B The disappearance of plague after 1720
C Improved agricultural techniques
D Better weather conditions

Question: On June 20, 1789, the deputies to the National Assembly took the “Tennis Court Oath,” which declared that
A The Third Estate represented the interests of the entire French nation
B Henceforth all voting would proceed on a one-man, one-vote basis
C They would not disband until they had given France a binding constitution
D They would sweep away the last vestiges of feudal privilege

Question: Louis XIV’s successor, the Duke of Orléans (1674–1723), and regent to the future Louis XV, took immediate steps to shore up France’s crumbling finances by
A Doubling the land tax, leading to widespread protests in rural areas throughout the kingdom
B Canceling plans for further colonial expeditions in the New World
C Founding a state bank to help the government service its debt, only to see it crash within a few months in the wake of a speculative bubble
D Imposing high tariffs on British agricultural imports, particularly wool and cotton textiles

Question: By 1740, the European state with the highest proportion of men at arms – 1 of every 28 people – was
A Great Britain
B Russia
C France
D Prussia

Question: The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte began after
A His victories in the Italian campaigns of 1796–1797
B A power vacuum occurred in the Directory, which needed to be filled by a vigorous leader
C The general success of the French wars after 1795
D His soldiers’ discovery of the Rosetta Stone and other admirable artifacts from the ancient world

Question: The common link between Princeton University, the Hasidim, and John Wesley is that they all
A Played an important role in shaping Thomas Jefferson’s political thinking
B Were persecuted by their respective governments for unorthodox thinking
C Flourished because of religious revivalism in the eighteenth century
D Shared a bequest from the great Quaker philanthropist William Penn

Question: Although popular unrest and peasant uprisings marred much of the final quarter of the eighteenth century throughout Europe, the largest single rebellion by far was the
A Pugachev rebellion in Russia
B Flour War in France
C Silesian Weavers’ revolt in Prussia
D November Revolution in Poland-Lithuania

Question: Prussia had vastly increased the size and efficiency of its army, vaulting itself to great power status by the mid-eighteenth century, with the
A Founding of military training schools for commissioned officers
B Adoption of the year-round “citizen-soldier” system
C Institution of the “canton system”
D Transformation of private militias of local lords into a mass army

Question: In 1774, Louis XVI restored the parlements, which had been abolished by his despised predecessor, Louis XV, because he
A Wished to uphold the Enlightenment principles of fair and impartial justice
B Shared the banished judges’ desire to reform the tax system, making it both more equitable and more efficient
C Succumbed to the demands of the aristocrats who viewed the parlements’ dissolution as an attack on privilege
D Hoped to diffuse rising popular resentment of tax increases and food shortages by reinstating a traditional outlet for the expression of popular grievances

Question: The Gordon riots, which devastated much of London in 1780, served as an example of the fact that
A Class issues still played a large role in ordinary people’s lives
B Eighteenth-century governments, though aspiring to modern state management, were still far from their espoused goals
C Enlightenment ideas, such as individual rights and equality before the law, had finally taken hold of, and emboldened, working-class men and women
D Popular demonstrations did not always support reforms

Question: Abbé Guillaume Raynal’s book, Philosophical and Political History of European Colonies and Commerce in the Two Indies (1770)
A Proposed that France should grant independence to its overseas colonies as part of laissez-faire economics
B Revealed that secret negotiations between France, Prussia, the Dutch Republic, and Britain had led to a treaty to end the slave trade by the year 1800
C Denounced the slave trade and European colonies that wiped out native populations
D Proved that Louis XV’s mistress had accepted huge bribes from India merchants in order to influence the king’s decisions about overseas trade

Question: European contact with China was limited because
A European traders realized that the goods produced by China were not worth enough to make the long voyage economically feasible
B The Chinese distrusted the European “barbarians” and allowed them to trade only in the city of Guangzhou but nowhere else
C European traders discovered that they could purchase cheaper and better-quality silks and spices in India
D The Chinese banned all European traders once they learned that Westerners were also trading with China’s mortal enemy, Japan

Question: Following the deaths of William and Mary and their successor, Anne (Mary’s sister), the English turned to which dynastic house for their next ruler, King George I (r. 1714–1727)?
A The Austrian Habsburgs
B The German House of Hanover
C The French Bourbons
D The Dutch House of Orange

Question: Voltaire’s campaign to restore Jean Calas’s reputation helped to bring about reforms, including the extension of civil rights to French Protestants as well as
A The abolition of the burdensome church tithe
B The abolition of the legal use of torture
C French Jews
D Access to legal representation for the poor

Question: In Peter the Great’s quest to make Russia “great,” all of the following measures were taken except
A The founding of laboratories, technical schools, and a Russian Academy of Sciences
B The emancipation of the Russian peasantry from a state of virtual slavery with the prohibition of the serf system
C The translation into Russian of many western European classics and the introduction of Arabic numerals
D The publication of the first public newspaper

Question: The Encyclopedia contributed to Enlightenment goals of social reform by
A Promoting the spread of knowledge that would be used to make informed decisions about social problems
B Funding from its sales the charitable schools established jointly by Diderot and Voltaire
C Providing systematic plans for social reform that could be used by anyone who was able to read
D Proving that a state-run system of education could turn out scholars capable of contributing to sophisticated intellectual projects like the Encyclopedia

Question: After Voltaire’s Letters Concerning the English Nation was published in the early 1730s, the French government ordered his arrest because the book
A Suggested that Voltaire had acted as a spy for England during the War of Polish Succession
B Argued that the Anglican church – and Protestantism in general – was more clearly based on scientific principles than was Catholicism
C Praised the British government’s toleration and flexibility as a way of condemning the French government
D Ridiculed Louis XV, his mistresses, and the entire French court

Question: In 1801, Napoleon signed a concordat with the pope to end church–state conflict because
A The French bishops agreed to support his plan to become emperor
B He believed that religion was a powerful component for maintaining social order
C His religious convictions had been violated by the anti-Catholicism of the Revolution
D The pope agreed to persuade the Italians to become a French satellite kingdom

Question: What was the profession that Napoleon described as “good for nothing under any government”?
A Painter
B Musician
C Writer
D Attorney

Question: Children of Spanish men and Indian women were called
A Mestizos
B Caballeros
C Quilombos
D Oroonokos

Question: In England, Eliza Haywood was one of a number of eighteenth-century women who showed that they could succeed as
A Proprietors of coffeehouses
B Merchants selling tea and coffee
C Newspaper reporters
D Authors of novels

Question: Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s theory of “the social contract” posed a direct threat to the perceived legitimacy of eighteenth-century governments because he based it upon
A God
B Tradition
C Social-scientific analysis
D Human nature

Question: Why was it so significant that the British government decided to allow the licensing system to lapse in 1695?
A Catholics no longer had to register with the government, so this was a significant step toward religious toleration
B Ending prepublication censorship of printed books and other materials encouraged expansion of literate society
C Restrictions on coffeehouses and taverns that had kept them from renting out their premises for any kind of political meetings were lifted, thus promoting political debate
D Merchants and traders no longer had to register their corporations with the government, creating a dramatic expansion in the stock market

Question: The French Revolution came to an end in 1799 when Napoleon Bonaparte
A Took power after a coup, ousted the Directory, and established himself as First Consul
B Seized power and crowned himself French emperor
C Was elected consul through a national plebiscite
D Enacted the Civil Code, which made him head of state

Question: In the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748), Empress Maria Theresa managed to hold on to her throne and most of her territory by
A Agreeing to Frederick II’s demand that Poland-Lithuania be divided up between Austria, Prussia, and Russia
B Forming an alliance with France against Prussia and her ally Great Britain
C Arranging for the assassination of the opposing claimant, Francis I, who had declared the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 invalid, thereby rescinding the right of women to inherit the crown
D Conceding Silesia to Prussia, thereby disrupting the Franco-Prussian alliance

Question: Parisian women marched to the palace at Versailles on October 5, 1789, in order to
A Request the king’s help in getting more grain for Paris
B Secure the king’s promise for a democratically elected National Convention
C Demonstrate their loyalty to the royal family and their distrust of reformers
D Beg the king to return to Paris and personally restore order

Question: Colonial farmers shipped to Europe large quantities of all of the following products except
A Coffee
B Wool
C Sugar
D Tobacco

Question: In what way did the Civil Code betray the principles of the Enlightenment and the Revolution?
A It reversed gains made in women’s and children’s rights to increase men’s power
B It failed to guarantee toleration for all religious groups
C It reinstituted restrictions on the commoners’ professional mobility
D It failed to provide safeguards for private property and familial integrity

Question: Republican festivals sponsored by the Committee of Public Safety were meant to
A Raise funds for the war effort by inspiring people to give money to save the republic
B Show other Europeans that stories about the Terror in France were greatly exaggerated
C Destroy the mystique of the monarchy and make the republic sacred through symbolism
D Gain the support of the army with holidays celebrating them as “the heroes of the republic”

Question: Although the Diplomatic Revolution in 1756 resulted in major changes in European alliances, the two major rivalries remained unchanged; these were
A France versus Britain and Austria versus Russia
B France versus Austria and Britain versus Prussia
C France versus Russia and Austria versus Prussia
D France versus Britain and Austria versus Prussia

Question: The revolutionaries’ decision to take over the education of boys and girls failed because
A They removed the Catholic clergy who had been teachers but did not have other teachers ready to take their place
B Political indoctrination took the place of subjects such as math, grammar, and history
C Only families able to pay school fees could send their children to state schools
D Education was restricted to the children of proven revolutionaries and veterans

Question: In 1762, Jean-Jacques Rousseau published Emile, which offered his theories on
A Democracy
B The Catholic Church
C Education
D The military

Question: Historians emphasize that what came to be called Britain’s “agricultural revolution” in the 1700s cannot be attributed to
A The selective breeding of animals
B The planting of fodder crops, such as clover and turnips, instead of field rotation
C The invention of new machinery
D An increase in the amount of land under cultivation

Question: The birth and growth of a European consumer society succeeded despite
A Attacks by writers and intellectuals who claimed that humans were becoming gluttonous animals
B Efforts by monarchs to stop the flood of imports in order to protect local producers
C Wildly fluctuating prices for new consumer products and exotic foods
D The reluctance of producers in colonial lands to sell commodities at enforced low prices

Question: In the Act of Union of 1707, Scottish Protestant leaders abolished the Scottish Parliament and instead agreed to obey the Parliament of Great Britain
A Because they feared Jacobitism
B Following Queen Anne’s successful suppression of a Scottish-Catholic revolt
C Thus making official the shift in power that had occurred long before
D When Queen Anne promised them sinecures and seats as peers in the House of Lords

Question: Napoleon’s founding of the Legion of Honor in 1802 was part of his campaign to
A Claim the legacy of ancient Rome by establishing an elite based on virtue and faithfulness
B Build a permanent elite fighting force to increase French colonial possessions abroad
C Control French culture by granting liberal pensions to those artists and writers of whom he approved
D Establish a social hierarchy based on merit

Question: How did the Enlightenment in France differ from that in Germany?
A The German government wholeheartedly supported its intellectuals, including Lessing and Kant, while France’s philosophes faced censorship or arrest
B Germany’s intellectuals, such as Immanuel Kant, were far more interested in the practical application of the new ideology than were their French counterparts
C French philosophes were far more aggressive in their condemnation of church and state than were German scholars
D French philosophes intended their work for the masses but because the Prussian state limited education only to the well-to-do, ordinary people could not participate in the Enlightenment

Question: The spread of Enlightenment ideals and the emergence of a more prosperous middle class in Europe were also reflected in music with
A The founding of music academies and scholarships, which for the first time enabled the young sons of the middle classes to pursue musical careers
B The transition from complex polyphony to an emphasis on more popularly accessible melody
C The establishment of open-air concerts for paying audiences, which freed musicians from financial concerns and thus from dependency on royal patronage
D A rejection of baroque and all older styles of musical composition in favor of continuous innovation and experimentation

Question: The eighteenth century witnessed an impressive upsurge in the production of books, pamphlets, and newspapers, along with a concomitant rise in literacy rates that was most evident in
A Spain and Portugal
B Scandinavia, Scotland, and parts of Switzerland
C The German states of the Holy Roman Empire
D France

Question: Writers of the Enlightenment called themselves
A Pensés
B Philosophes
C Bibliophiles
D Incroyables

Question: Montesquieu’s Persian Letters, anonymously published in the Dutch Republic in 1721, is an example of
A Books that responded to the new European interest in exotic plants and flowers
B Travel accounts that took an intolerant view of non-Christian countries
C Political critiques of European politics and society that were disguised as travel accounts
D The way letters written on a foreign journey could be turned into a best-seller

Question: When the Estates General met in 1789, their first decision concerned the
A Bank of France
B Role of the king
C Food shortage
D Voting procedure

Question: In response to a massive uprising of the long-oppressed serfs of Russia, Empress Catherine “the Great” (r. 1762–1796)
A Increased the nobles’ power over them
B Promulgated laws easing the legal restrictions that had prevented serfs from leaving family plots, earning independent livelihoods, and marrying without their feudal lords’ permission
C Declared war on Prussia as a way of diverting attention away from social problems at home
D Repealed the tax increases of the mid-century and shifted some of the tax burden to the heretofore tax-exempt nobility

Question: Peter the Great was determined to Westernize his country, and one of the most significant steps in that direction was
A Appointing a chief minister who managed court affairs, made political appointments, and oversaw mercantile policy
B Making up for the lack of a Russian middle class by encouraging noblewomen to become involved in science, education, and trade
C Undertaking extensive colonization efforts in Africa to obtain the raw materials that provided so much of western Europe’s wealth
D Founding the new technical and scientific schools that were run by Western officials

Question: The dispute in the French National Assembly between the Girondins and the Mountagnards was over
A Whether the upper ranks of the aristocracy should be exiled along with the king, Louis XVI (the Mountagnards’ position), or the king alone should be exiled (the Girondins’ position)
B Whether the entire royal family should be exiled (the Mountagnards’ position) or executed (the Girondins’ position)
C Whether the king, Louis XVI, was guilty of treason (the Girondins’ position) or simply shirking his responsibilities (the Mountagnards’ position)
D Whether the king, Louis XVI, should be executed for treason (the Mountagnards’ position) or given clemency or exile (the Girondins’ position)

Question: Napoleon’s feared minister of police, who made liberal use of his authority to spy on and arbitrarily imprison all political dissidents, was
A Louis-Léopold Boilly
B Alexandre Berthier
C Joseph Fouché
D Eugène de Beauharnais

Question: Which of the following measures was not part of Napoleon’s “new paternalism”?
A Children up to the age of sixteen could be imprisoned for refusing to follow their father’s commands
B Employers were prohibited from deducting fines and arbitrarily reducing employee wages
C Destitute women could more easily abandon their children anonymously to government foundling hospitals
D The government prohibited all workers’ organizations

Question: By the eighteenth century, many Europeans began to try to provide a rationale for the institution of slavery based predominantly on
A Religious grounds, as many asserted that African “heathens” deserved to be enslaved
B Africans’ purported mental inferiority
C Historical precedent, pointing to slavery as a “natural” practice that dated as far back as ancient Greece and the Roman empire
D The claim that contact with European religion and culture, coupled with hard work, had an edifying, or civilizing, effect on so-called primitive peoples

Question: The “incorruptible” leader of the Committee of Public Safety was
A Jacques-Louis David
B Maximilien Robespierre
C Georges-Jacques Danton
D Jean-Paul Marat

Question: The slave trade had a lasting impact on Europe because it
A Encouraged many more Europeans to go to the colonies to find work
B Put many European farmers out of business by undercutting their prices
C Permanently altered consumption patterns for ordinary people
D Introduced African products and goods into Europe for the first time

Punctual Essays
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.


Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.


Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.


Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.