Question: Demographic historians speak of a “population explosion” beginning in the seventeenth century, which they attribute to all of the following factors except
 
A A rise in the birthrate
 
B The disappearance of plague after 1720
 
C Improved agricultural techniques
 
D Better weather conditions

Question: On June 20, 1789, the deputies to the National Assembly took the “Tennis Court Oath,” which declared that
 
A The Third Estate represented the interests of the entire French nation
 
B Henceforth all voting would proceed on a one-man, one-vote basis
 
C They would not disband until they had given France a binding constitution
 
D They would sweep away the last vestiges of feudal privilege

Question: Louis XIV’s successor, the Duke of Orléans (1674–1723), and regent to the future Louis XV, took immediate steps to shore up France’s crumbling finances by
 
A Doubling the land tax, leading to widespread protests in rural areas throughout the kingdom
 
B Canceling plans for further colonial expeditions in the New World
 
C Founding a state bank to help the government service its debt, only to see it crash within a few months in the wake of a speculative bubble
 
D Imposing high tariffs on British agricultural imports, particularly wool and cotton textiles

Question: By 1740, the European state with the highest proportion of men at arms – 1 of every 28 people – was
 
A Great Britain
 
B Russia
 
C France
 
D Prussia

Question: The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte began after
 
A His victories in the Italian campaigns of 1796–1797
 
B A power vacuum occurred in the Directory, which needed to be filled by a vigorous leader
 
C The general success of the French wars after 1795
 
D His soldiers’ discovery of the Rosetta Stone and other admirable artifacts from the ancient world

Question: The common link between Princeton University, the Hasidim, and John Wesley is that they all
 
A Played an important role in shaping Thomas Jefferson’s political thinking
 
B Were persecuted by their respective governments for unorthodox thinking
 
C Flourished because of religious revivalism in the eighteenth century
 
D Shared a bequest from the great Quaker philanthropist William Penn

Question: Although popular unrest and peasant uprisings marred much of the final quarter of the eighteenth century throughout Europe, the largest single rebellion by far was the
 
A Pugachev rebellion in Russia
 
B Flour War in France
 
C Silesian Weavers’ revolt in Prussia
 
D November Revolution in Poland-Lithuania

Question: Prussia had vastly increased the size and efficiency of its army, vaulting itself to great power status by the mid-eighteenth century, with the
 
A Founding of military training schools for commissioned officers
 
B Adoption of the year-round “citizen-soldier” system
 
C Institution of the “canton system”
 
D Transformation of private militias of local lords into a mass army

Question: In 1774, Louis XVI restored the parlements, which had been abolished by his despised predecessor, Louis XV, because he
 
A Wished to uphold the Enlightenment principles of fair and impartial justice
 
B Shared the banished judges’ desire to reform the tax system, making it both more equitable and more efficient
 
C Succumbed to the demands of the aristocrats who viewed the parlements’ dissolution as an attack on privilege
 
D Hoped to diffuse rising popular resentment of tax increases and food shortages by reinstating a traditional outlet for the expression of popular grievances

Question: The Gordon riots, which devastated much of London in 1780, served as an example of the fact that
 
A Class issues still played a large role in ordinary people’s lives
 
B Eighteenth-century governments, though aspiring to modern state management, were still far from their espoused goals
 
C Enlightenment ideas, such as individual rights and equality before the law, had finally taken hold of, and emboldened, working-class men and women
 
D Popular demonstrations did not always support reforms

Question: Abbé Guillaume Raynal’s book, Philosophical and Political History of European Colonies and Commerce in the Two Indies (1770)
 
A Proposed that France should grant independence to its overseas colonies as part of laissez-faire economics
 
B Revealed that secret negotiations between France, Prussia, the Dutch Republic, and Britain had led to a treaty to end the slave trade by the year 1800
 
C Denounced the slave trade and European colonies that wiped out native populations
 
D Proved that Louis XV’s mistress had accepted huge bribes from India merchants in order to influence the king’s decisions about overseas trade

Question: European contact with China was limited because
 
A European traders realized that the goods produced by China were not worth enough to make the long voyage economically feasible
 
B The Chinese distrusted the European “barbarians” and allowed them to trade only in the city of Guangzhou but nowhere else
 
C European traders discovered that they could purchase cheaper and better-quality silks and spices in India
 
D The Chinese banned all European traders once they learned that Westerners were also trading with China’s mortal enemy, Japan

Question: Following the deaths of William and Mary and their successor, Anne (Mary’s sister), the English turned to which dynastic house for their next ruler, King George I (r. 1714–1727)?
 
A The Austrian Habsburgs
 
B The German House of Hanover
 
C The French Bourbons
 
D The Dutch House of Orange

Question: Voltaire’s campaign to restore Jean Calas’s reputation helped to bring about reforms, including the extension of civil rights to French Protestants as well as
 
A The abolition of the burdensome church tithe
 
B The abolition of the legal use of torture
 
C French Jews
 
D Access to legal representation for the poor

Question: In Peter the Great’s quest to make Russia “great,” all of the following measures were taken except
 
A The founding of laboratories, technical schools, and a Russian Academy of Sciences
 
B The emancipation of the Russian peasantry from a state of virtual slavery with the prohibition of the serf system
 
C The translation into Russian of many western European classics and the introduction of Arabic numerals
 
D The publication of the first public newspaper

Question: The Encyclopedia contributed to Enlightenment goals of social reform by
 
A Promoting the spread of knowledge that would be used to make informed decisions about social problems
 
B Funding from its sales the charitable schools established jointly by Diderot and Voltaire
 
C Providing systematic plans for social reform that could be used by anyone who was able to read
 
D Proving that a state-run system of education could turn out scholars capable of contributing to sophisticated intellectual projects like the Encyclopedia

Question: After Voltaire’s Letters Concerning the English Nation was published in the early 1730s, the French government ordered his arrest because the book
 
A Suggested that Voltaire had acted as a spy for England during the War of Polish Succession
 
B Argued that the Anglican church – and Protestantism in general – was more clearly based on scientific principles than was Catholicism
 
C Praised the British government’s toleration and flexibility as a way of condemning the French government
 
D Ridiculed Louis XV, his mistresses, and the entire French court

Question: In 1801, Napoleon signed a concordat with the pope to end church–state conflict because
 
A The French bishops agreed to support his plan to become emperor
 
B He believed that religion was a powerful component for maintaining social order
 
C His religious convictions had been violated by the anti-Catholicism of the Revolution
 
D The pope agreed to persuade the Italians to become a French satellite kingdom

Question: What was the profession that Napoleon described as “good for nothing under any government”?
 
A Painter
 
B Musician
 
C Writer
 
D Attorney

Question: Children of Spanish men and Indian women were called
 
A Mestizos
 
B Caballeros
 
C Quilombos
 
D Oroonokos

Question: In England, Eliza Haywood was one of a number of eighteenth-century women who showed that they could succeed as
 
A Proprietors of coffeehouses
 
B Merchants selling tea and coffee
 
C Newspaper reporters
 
D Authors of novels

Question: Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s theory of “the social contract” posed a direct threat to the perceived legitimacy of eighteenth-century governments because he based it upon
 
A God
 
B Tradition
 
C Social-scientific analysis
 
D Human nature

Question: Why was it so significant that the British government decided to allow the licensing system to lapse in 1695?
 
A Catholics no longer had to register with the government, so this was a significant step toward religious toleration
 
B Ending prepublication censorship of printed books and other materials encouraged expansion of literate society
 
C Restrictions on coffeehouses and taverns that had kept them from renting out their premises for any kind of political meetings were lifted, thus promoting political debate
 
D Merchants and traders no longer had to register their corporations with the government, creating a dramatic expansion in the stock market

Question: The French Revolution came to an end in 1799 when Napoleon Bonaparte
 
A Took power after a coup, ousted the Directory, and established himself as First Consul
 
B Seized power and crowned himself French emperor
 
C Was elected consul through a national plebiscite
 
D Enacted the Civil Code, which made him head of state

Question: In the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748), Empress Maria Theresa managed to hold on to her throne and most of her territory by
 
A Agreeing to Frederick II’s demand that Poland-Lithuania be divided up between Austria, Prussia, and Russia
 
B Forming an alliance with France against Prussia and her ally Great Britain
 
C Arranging for the assassination of the opposing claimant, Francis I, who had declared the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 invalid, thereby rescinding the right of women to inherit the crown
 
D Conceding Silesia to Prussia, thereby disrupting the Franco-Prussian alliance

Question: Parisian women marched to the palace at Versailles on October 5, 1789, in order to
 
A Request the king’s help in getting more grain for Paris
 
B Secure the king’s promise for a democratically elected National Convention
 
C Demonstrate their loyalty to the royal family and their distrust of reformers
 
D Beg the king to return to Paris and personally restore order

Question: Colonial farmers shipped to Europe large quantities of all of the following products except
 
A Coffee
 
B Wool
 
C Sugar
 
D Tobacco

Question: In what way did the Civil Code betray the principles of the Enlightenment and the Revolution?
 
A It reversed gains made in women’s and children’s rights to increase men’s power
 
B It failed to guarantee toleration for all religious groups
 
C It reinstituted restrictions on the commoners’ professional mobility
 
D It failed to provide safeguards for private property and familial integrity

Question: Republican festivals sponsored by the Committee of Public Safety were meant to
 
A Raise funds for the war effort by inspiring people to give money to save the republic
 
B Show other Europeans that stories about the Terror in France were greatly exaggerated
 
C Destroy the mystique of the monarchy and make the republic sacred through symbolism
 
D Gain the support of the army with holidays celebrating them as “the heroes of the republic”

Question: Although the Diplomatic Revolution in 1756 resulted in major changes in European alliances, the two major rivalries remained unchanged; these were
 
A France versus Britain and Austria versus Russia
 
B France versus Austria and Britain versus Prussia
 
C France versus Russia and Austria versus Prussia
 
D France versus Britain and Austria versus Prussia

Question: The revolutionaries’ decision to take over the education of boys and girls failed because
 
A They removed the Catholic clergy who had been teachers but did not have other teachers ready to take their place
 
B Political indoctrination took the place of subjects such as math, grammar, and history
 
C Only families able to pay school fees could send their children to state schools
 
D Education was restricted to the children of proven revolutionaries and veterans

Question: In 1762, Jean-Jacques Rousseau published Emile, which offered his theories on
 
A Democracy
 
B The Catholic Church
 
C Education
 
D The military

Question: Historians emphasize that what came to be called Britain’s “agricultural revolution” in the 1700s cannot be attributed to
 
A The selective breeding of animals
 
B The planting of fodder crops, such as clover and turnips, instead of field rotation
 
C The invention of new machinery
 
D An increase in the amount of land under cultivation

Question: The birth and growth of a European consumer society succeeded despite
 
A Attacks by writers and intellectuals who claimed that humans were becoming gluttonous animals
 
B Efforts by monarchs to stop the flood of imports in order to protect local producers
 
C Wildly fluctuating prices for new consumer products and exotic foods
 
D The reluctance of producers in colonial lands to sell commodities at enforced low prices

Question: In the Act of Union of 1707, Scottish Protestant leaders abolished the Scottish Parliament and instead agreed to obey the Parliament of Great Britain
 
A Because they feared Jacobitism
 
B Following Queen Anne’s successful suppression of a Scottish-Catholic revolt
 
C Thus making official the shift in power that had occurred long before
 
D When Queen Anne promised them sinecures and seats as peers in the House of Lords

Question: Napoleon’s founding of the Legion of Honor in 1802 was part of his campaign to
 
A Claim the legacy of ancient Rome by establishing an elite based on virtue and faithfulness
 
B Build a permanent elite fighting force to increase French colonial possessions abroad
 
C Control French culture by granting liberal pensions to those artists and writers of whom he approved
 
D Establish a social hierarchy based on merit

Question: How did the Enlightenment in France differ from that in Germany?
 
A The German government wholeheartedly supported its intellectuals, including Lessing and Kant, while France’s philosophes faced censorship or arrest
 
B Germany’s intellectuals, such as Immanuel Kant, were far more interested in the practical application of the new ideology than were their French counterparts
 
C French philosophes were far more aggressive in their condemnation of church and state than were German scholars
 
D French philosophes intended their work for the masses but because the Prussian state limited education only to the well-to-do, ordinary people could not participate in the Enlightenment

Question: The spread of Enlightenment ideals and the emergence of a more prosperous middle class in Europe were also reflected in music with
 
A The founding of music academies and scholarships, which for the first time enabled the young sons of the middle classes to pursue musical careers
 
B The transition from complex polyphony to an emphasis on more popularly accessible melody
 
C The establishment of open-air concerts for paying audiences, which freed musicians from financial concerns and thus from dependency on royal patronage
 
D A rejection of baroque and all older styles of musical composition in favor of continuous innovation and experimentation

Question: The eighteenth century witnessed an impressive upsurge in the production of books, pamphlets, and newspapers, along with a concomitant rise in literacy rates that was most evident in
 
A Spain and Portugal
 
B Scandinavia, Scotland, and parts of Switzerland
 
C The German states of the Holy Roman Empire
 
D France

Question: Writers of the Enlightenment called themselves
 
A Pensés
 
B Philosophes
 
C Bibliophiles
 
D Incroyables

Question: Montesquieu’s Persian Letters, anonymously published in the Dutch Republic in 1721, is an example of
 
A Books that responded to the new European interest in exotic plants and flowers
 
B Travel accounts that took an intolerant view of non-Christian countries
 
C Political critiques of European politics and society that were disguised as travel accounts
 
D The way letters written on a foreign journey could be turned into a best-seller

Question: When the Estates General met in 1789, their first decision concerned the
 
A Bank of France
 
B Role of the king
 
C Food shortage
 
D Voting procedure

Question: In response to a massive uprising of the long-oppressed serfs of Russia, Empress Catherine “the Great” (r. 1762–1796)
 
A Increased the nobles’ power over them
 
B Promulgated laws easing the legal restrictions that had prevented serfs from leaving family plots, earning independent livelihoods, and marrying without their feudal lords’ permission
 
C Declared war on Prussia as a way of diverting attention away from social problems at home
 
D Repealed the tax increases of the mid-century and shifted some of the tax burden to the heretofore tax-exempt nobility

Question: Peter the Great was determined to Westernize his country, and one of the most significant steps in that direction was
 
A Appointing a chief minister who managed court affairs, made political appointments, and oversaw mercantile policy
 
B Making up for the lack of a Russian middle class by encouraging noblewomen to become involved in science, education, and trade
 
C Undertaking extensive colonization efforts in Africa to obtain the raw materials that provided so much of western Europe’s wealth
 
D Founding the new technical and scientific schools that were run by Western officials

Question: The dispute in the French National Assembly between the Girondins and the Mountagnards was over
 
A Whether the upper ranks of the aristocracy should be exiled along with the king, Louis XVI (the Mountagnards’ position), or the king alone should be exiled (the Girondins’ position)
 
B Whether the entire royal family should be exiled (the Mountagnards’ position) or executed (the Girondins’ position)
 
C Whether the king, Louis XVI, was guilty of treason (the Girondins’ position) or simply shirking his responsibilities (the Mountagnards’ position)
 
D Whether the king, Louis XVI, should be executed for treason (the Mountagnards’ position) or given clemency or exile (the Girondins’ position)

Question: Napoleon’s feared minister of police, who made liberal use of his authority to spy on and arbitrarily imprison all political dissidents, was
 
A Louis-Léopold Boilly
 
B Alexandre Berthier
 
C Joseph Fouché
 
D Eugène de Beauharnais

Question: Which of the following measures was not part of Napoleon’s “new paternalism”?
 
A Children up to the age of sixteen could be imprisoned for refusing to follow their father’s commands
 
B Employers were prohibited from deducting fines and arbitrarily reducing employee wages
 
C Destitute women could more easily abandon their children anonymously to government foundling hospitals
 
D The government prohibited all workers’ organizations

Question: By the eighteenth century, many Europeans began to try to provide a rationale for the institution of slavery based predominantly on
 
A Religious grounds, as many asserted that African “heathens” deserved to be enslaved
 
B Africans’ purported mental inferiority
 
C Historical precedent, pointing to slavery as a “natural” practice that dated as far back as ancient Greece and the Roman empire
 
D The claim that contact with European religion and culture, coupled with hard work, had an edifying, or civilizing, effect on so-called primitive peoples

Question: The “incorruptible” leader of the Committee of Public Safety was
 
A Jacques-Louis David
 
B Maximilien Robespierre
 
C Georges-Jacques Danton
 
D Jean-Paul Marat

Question: The slave trade had a lasting impact on Europe because it
 
A Encouraged many more Europeans to go to the colonies to find work
 
B Put many European farmers out of business by undercutting their prices
 
C Permanently altered consumption patterns for ordinary people
 
D Introduced African products and goods into Europe for the first time

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